Our Methodology

Our Data & Scientific Research

The Entrepreneur DNA Assessment has been developed since 2009 specifically to identify the evaluate entrepreneurs.

The Science Behind our Assessment

FI has worked closely with clinical psychologists, I/O psychologists, data scientists, and several social science PhDs to develop our assessment and update our scoring algorithms.

In addition to over a decade of assessment results and performance data, our assessment takes into account the latest peer-reviewed research in this domain.

Decoding the DNA

Great companies start with great people, so the application to Founder Institute startup accelerators has always focused on quantifying entrepreneurial traits through a battery of personality and aptitude evaluations.

Our Assessment leverages data since 2009 spanning 175,000+ entrepreneurs, 6,800+ portfolio companies, and 6 continents.

Psychographic Testing

Rather than subjectively judging startup ideas, our admissions criteria for the FI accelerator contains a 30 minute online assessment designed to identify 'Entrepreneur DNA'.

Pre-Seed Accelerator

Accepted founders join an intense 4-month accelerator to launch a startup. Each week they get numerical ratings on their progress from peers, program leaders, and experienced mentors.

Track Market Performance

After graduation, the FI Portfolio Success team continues rating the founders on their company performance 'in the real world', with all data fed back into the weighting of the assessment.

Analyze and Calibrate

Through a flow of continous data, regression analysis from PhDs, and frequent test updates, FI has built and can maintain a statistically validated test for identifying the highest potential entrepreneurs.

What we evaluate

The latest version of our Entrepreneur DNA Assessment, which was formed utilizing our own data and extensive peer-reviewed literature, analyzes 25 dimensions of entrepreneurship. Below are just a few.


Can you work effectively in the context of a team?


Are you resilient and intrinsically motivated to succeed?


Are you a self-starter that takes initiative in unclear environments?

Problem Solving

Can you learn quickly and apply that learning to solve complex problems?

... and 21 more traits!

Assessment History and Research

The DNA Assessment actually began as a hiring ‘test’ for startup employees in the mid 2000’s. At the time, Adeo Ressi was trying to find the best hires for a fast-paced, venture-backed technology startup in New York City named Gametrust.

To do so, they engaged a renowned clinical psychologist to develop an online assessment to screen job applicants, with a goal of identifying applicants that would be a culture-fit at a company that prioritized aggressive growth goals and constant iteration. This first test focused on IQ and the ‘Big 5’ Personality Traits, and was instrumental in several key hires. Gametrust was acquired by RealNetworks in 2007.

When Adeo Ressi and Jonathan Greechan founded the Founder Institute in 2009, they engaged this same clinical psychologist with a simple question: if an online test was able to properly identify the right people to work at a startup, then could we design a new test to identify the right people to start a startup?

They hypothesized that an objective test could predict the likelihood that any person could build a successful technology company - regardless of their locale, profession, race, or demographic.

Such a test could scale the evaluation of idea-stage entrepreneurs by removing subjectivity. This was of particular interest to the Founder Institute - a unique accelerator that works with entrepreneurs at the pure idea-stage, where objective data is mostly non-existent.

Assessment v1-2

The initial version of this “Entrepreneur DNA Assessment” used the ‘Big 5’ personality traits as the base, along with sections focused on both IQ and Fluid Intelligence. The ‘Big 5’ was selected due to the large amounts of research correlating those traits to entrepreneurs (1,2).

Assessment questions are presented in a forced-choice format in order to reduce instances of response distortion or “faking” (10). Respondents are forced to select answers that may not be the most socially desirable in order to get more accurate results. This forced choice format has been shown to curb instances of faking in increased validity and reliability (11).

To ensure geographic diversity in our testing, the Assessment was translated into 9 languages using professional business translation services. Significant measures were taken to ensure that their translations did not introduce any bias into the test results.

From approximately 2009-2013, all applicants to the Founder Institute startup accelerator were given a variation of a 45 minute to 3 hour long battery of personality and aptitude tests, and then were carefully measured and monitored for an 18 month period thereafter. All of the performance data below was given to a team of social scientists to compare with each Founder’s initial Assessment results.

Performance Measurement in the Accelerator Program

Performance tracking during the FI ‘Core Program’, which lasts approximately 4 months, if comprehensive. As many as 100 separate 1 to 5 ratings (5 being the best) of the Enrolled Founders are collected from their program Mentors (typically experienced startup founders, executives, and investors), Directors, and peers. Each Founder is rated weekly on their business idea development, pitch, and progress. In addition, there are two detailed “Review” weeks during the program where more detailed ratings are collected on the Founders.

Performance Measurement After the Accelerator Program

Graduate performance is tracked quarterly after Graduation through self-reporting on key metrics, such as revenue growth and market traction, with validation of this progress by the Founder Institute's Portfolio Support team.

Definition of “Success”

We define the success of early-stage entrepreneurs by their ability to quickly execute the strategy and short-term goals they defined in the Founder Institute program, that were validated by their Mentors and peers. Depending on their specific business and goals, metrics such as revenue, adoption, profitability, capital raised, recruitment of top talent, product milestones achieved, and more can all be factored into determining their relative level of success.

Assessment Score Accuracy in the Program

In addition to the personality assessment, the Predictive Admissions Test also provides the Institute with 1 to 5 “Founder Score” that predicts a candidate’s minimum performance within FI. In our most recent analysis;

  • Just 14.9% of Founders performed at ratings below their Founder Score.
  • 85.1% of Founders either performed as expected or outperformed the test.

Control Groups

FI ran several control groups of both traditional application review, and random admissions, to validate the impact of the test.

Assessment Variants

As our social scientists began to identify patterns and predictive traits, we began removing parts of the Assessment that focused on traits where we found no predictive correlations, such as IQ. Assessments during this time period were assigned to FI chapters randomly, and varied in length from 45-minutes to 3 hours.

Ultimately, this resulted in the standardization of “Assessment v2” across all FI applicants and chapters in mid 2013, which required approximately 45-60 minutes to complete.

Scoring Algorithm

From 2013 to 2018, the scoring algorithm was updated every 1-2 years after a thorough round of regression analysis from social scientists.

Assessment v3

In 2018, FI began its most comprehensive update, designed to leverage not only 2MM+ data points from our applicants to measure successful outcomes, but also the most recent academic research on entrepreneurship (a fast-growing field of study).

To accomplish this, FI hired a team of I/O psychologists and data scientists specifically focused in the area of creating and deploying valid online assessments.

Their approximately 2-year long study and study led to the launch of Assessment v3. Of the exhaustive list of 304 dimensions which were collected and analyzed by our team, only those that were valid and reliable in testing were included.

Assessment v3 is written at a third grade reading level, has no colloquialisms or slang for ease of translation, and has been professionally translated into Spanish and Portuguese. In an effort to eliminate cultural bias we conducted validity and reliability studies with a diverse group of test-takers.

The Assessment v3 measures 15 higher-order personality dimensions and 44 sub-dimensions that are associated with entrepreneurship. Each of these dimensions leverage our proprietary testing and performance data from 2009, peer-reviewed research, or a combination of both. All traits were mapped to Big 5 dimensions, so we were able to correlate FI's previous iteration’s results with even the oldest versions of the Assessment.

Academic Research

The team of I/O psychologists was tasked with completing an exhaustive literature review, designed to uncover new opportunities and potential cuts/ additions to both the Assessment and the scoring algorithm.

As a result of their review and analysis, we introduced the measurement of several more personality traits (e.g., innovativeness, proactivity, adaptability) that have shown to be relevant to entrepreneur success based on peer-reviewed research (3); with ‘success’ being defined as revenue growth, employment growth, or long-term business survival (4,5).

Moreover, we began to distinguish between traits and test results that specifically correlate with ‘early-startup success’ versus ‘later-startup success.’ Research on this topic showed that personality traits such as motivation, confidence, and risk-taking predicted early entrepreneur success, measured by first sales revenues, but not longer-term business survival (7). In the later, mature phases of startup companies, research showed that entrepreneurs who scored high on risk-taking and motivation attained higher revenues compared to entrepreneurs who scored low on these traits (9).

Assessment v4

In 2022 we conducted another analysis of our assessment results, broadening our definition of ‘success’ to include completion of the FI accelerator, ratings within the program, successful fundraising, revenue growth, company survival rate, and more. As a result, our proprietary algorithm was updated to reflect this performance to better predict outcomes.

As of year end 2022 we have had over 100,000 people take the Assessment from 126 countries.

Research Citations

  1. Zhao, H. & Seibert, S.E. 2006. The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 259-271).
  2. Bostjan Antoncic, Tina Bratkovic kregar, Gangaram Singh & Alex F. Denoble (2015) The Big Five Personality–Entrepreneurship Relationship: Evidence from Slovenia, Journal of Small Business Management, 53:3, 819-841, DOI: 10.1111/jsbm.12089
  3. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of work and organizational psychology, 16(4), 353-385.
  4. Murphy, G., Trailer,J. and Hill,R. (1996). Measuring performance in entrepreneurship research. Journal of BusinessResearch 36(1): 15–23
  5. Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W. R., & Xu, T. (2018). Personality traits of entrepreneurs: a review of recent literature. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 279-356.
  6. Kessler, A., Korunka, C., Frank, H., & Lueger, M. (2012). Predicting founding success and new venture survival: A longitudinal nascent entrepreneurship approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 20(01), 25-55. Kessler, A., et al. (2012)
  7. Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W. R., & Xu, T. (2018). Personality traits of entrepreneurs: a review of recent literature. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 279-356.
  8. Wiklund,J. and Shepherd, D.(2005).Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of BusinessVenturing 20(1): 71–91.
  9. O'Neill, T. A., Lewis, R. J., Law, S. J., Larson, N., Hancock, S., Radan, J., ... & Carswell, J. J. (2017). Forced- choice pre-employment personality assessment: Construct validity and resistance to faking. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 120-127.
  10. Martínez A, Salgado JF. A Meta-Analysis of the Faking Resistance of Forced-Choice Personality Inventories. Front Psychol. 2021 Sep 29;12:732241. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.732241. PMID: 34659043; PMCID: PMC8511514.
  11. Ahmad, N. H., Ramayah, T., Wilson, C., & Kummerow, L. (2010). Is Entrepreneurial competency and business success relationship contingent upon business environment?: A study of Malaysian SMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16(3), 182-203. doi:10.1108/13552551011042780
  12. Baluku, M. M., Kikooma, J. F., & Kibanja, G. M. (2016). Psychological capital and the startup capital-entrepreneurial success relationship. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 28(1), 27-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2015.1132512
  13. Baron, R.A., 1999. Perceptions of Entrepreneurs: Evidence for a Positive Stereotype. Unpublished Manuscript, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  14. Baum, J. R., Frese, M., & Baron, R. A. (2014). Born to be an entrepreneur? Revisiting the personality approach to entrepreneurship. In The psychology of entrepreneurship (pp. 73-98). Psychology Press.
  15. Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292-303.
  16. Baum, J Robert & Locke, Edwin. (2004). The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Traits, Skill, and Motivation to Subsequent Venture Growth. Journal of Applied Psychology. 89. 587-598. 10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.587.
  17. Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2), 103–118.
  18. Becherer, R. C., & Maurer, J. G. (1999). The proactive personality disposition and entrepreneurial behavior among small company presidents. Journal of Small Business Management, 37, 28-36.
  19. Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1985). The relationship of the Jenkins Activity Survey to Type A behavior among business executives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 27(3), 316–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(85)90039-9
  20. Bergner, S. (2020). Being smart is not enough: Personality traits and vocational interests incrementally predict intention, status and success of leaders and entrepreneurs beyond cognitive ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi-org.srv-proxy1.library.tamu.edu/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00204
  21. Block, J. H., Fisch, C. O., & Praag, M. (2017) The schumpeterian entrepreneur: a review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behaviour and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship, Industry and Innovation, 24(1), 61-95. https://doi-org.srv-proxy2.library.tamu.edu/10.1080/13662716.2016.1216397
  22. Brandstätter, H. (2011). Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: A look at five meta-analyses. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 222–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.007
  23. Brockhaus, R.H. & P.S. Horwitz (1986) The psychology of the entrepreneur, In D.L. Sexton & R.W. Smilor (eds.) The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 25-48.
  24. Brockhaus, Robert H., The Psychology of the Entrepreneur (1982). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1497760
  25. Brouthers, K. D., Nakos, G., & Dimitratos, P. (2015). SME Entrepreneurial Orientation, International Performance, and the Moderating Role of Strategic Alliances. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(5), 1161–1187. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12101
  26. Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42(4), 787-814. doi:10.1007/s11187-013-9514-8
  27. Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological bulletin, 56(2), 81.
  28. Ciavarella, Mark & Buchholtz, Ann & Riordan, Christine & Gatewood, Robert & Stokes, Garnett. (2004). The Big Five and Venture Survival: Is There a Linkage?. Journal of Business Venturing. 19. 465-483. 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.03.001.
  29. Chang, C. (2012), "Exploring IT entrepreneurs' dynamic capabilities using Q‐technique", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 112 No. 8, pp. 1201-1216. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635571211264627
  30. Chang, J., Hsiao, Y., Chen, S., & Tsung-Ta, Y. (2018). Core entrepreneurial competencies of students in departments of electrical engineering and computer sciences (EECS) in universities. Education + Training, 60(7/8), 857-872. doi:10.1108/ET-10-2016-0160
  31. Chao C. Chen; Patricia Gene Greene and Ann Crick, (1998), Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?, Journal of Business Venturing, 13, (4), 295-316
  32. Chell, E. (2008). (2nd ed.). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203938638
  33. Ciavarella, M. A., Buchholtz, A. K., Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R. D., & Stokes, G. S. (2004). The big five and venture survival: Is there a linkage? Journal of Business Venturing, 19(4), 465-483. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.03.001
  34. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical assessment, research & evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
  35. Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological bulletin, 52(4), 281. Predictive validity refers to the evidence supporting a score on an assessment predicts scores on performance.
  36. Cruz-Ros, S., Guerrero-Sánchez, D.L. & Miquel-Romero, MJ. Absorptive capacity and its impact on innovation and performance: findings from SEM and fsQCA. Rev Manag Sci 15, 235–249 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-018-0319-7
  37. Cruz‐Ros, S., Garzón, D., & Mas‐Tur, A. (2017). Entrepreneurial competencies and motivations to enhance marketing innovation in Europe. Psychology & Marketing, 34(11), 1031-1038. doi:10.1002/mar.21042
  38. Dencker, J. C., & Gruber, M. (2015). The effects of opportunities and founder experience on new firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 36(7), 1035–1052. https://doi-org.srv-proxy1.library.tamu.edu/10.1002/smj.2269
  39. Diaz-Casero, C. J., Hernandez-Mogollon, R., & Roldan, J. L. (2012). A structural model of the antecedents to entrepreneurial capacity. International Small Business Journal, 30(8), 850.
  40. Dijkhuizen, J., Gorgievski, M., van Veldhoven, M., & Schalk, R. (2018). Well-being, personal success and business performance among entrepreneurs: A two-wave study. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 19(8), 2187–2204. https://doi-org.srv-proxy1.library.tamu.edu/10.1007/s10902-017-9914-6
  41. Dimitratos, P., Liouka, I., & Young, S. (2014). A missing operationalization: Entrepreneurial competencies in multinational enterprise subsidiaries. Long Range Planning, 47(1-2), 64-75. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2013.10.004
  42. Dvir, D., Sadeh, A., & Malach-Pines, A. (2010). The fit between entrepreneurs' personalities and the profile of the ventures they manage and business success: An exploratory study. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 21(1), 43-51. doi:10.1016/j.hitech.2010.02.006
  43. Flexman, N. A., & Scanlon, T. J. (1982). Running your own business. Allen, TX: Argus Communications.
  44. Frese, M., &; Rauch, A. (2008). A personality approach to entrepreneurship. In S. Cartwright, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Psychology. (pp. 121-136). Oxford: Oxford University Press & British Academy.
  45. Frese, Michael & Gielnik, Michael. (2014). The Psychology of Entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior. 1. 413-438. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091326.
  46. Fuller, B., Liu, Y., Bajaba, S., Marler, L. E., & Pratt, J. (2018). Examining how the personality, self-efficacy, and anticipatory cognitions of potential entrepreneurs shape their entrepreneurial intentions. Personality and Individual Differences, 125, 120-125. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.005
  47. Gemmell, R.M. (2017), "Learning styles of entrepreneurs in knowledge-intensive industries", International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 446-464. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0307
  48. Groves, K., Vance, C., & Choi, D. (2011). Examining entrepreneurial cognition: An occupational analysis of balanced linear and nonlinear thinking and entrepreneurship success. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(3), 438–466. https://doi-org.srv-proxy1.library.tamu.edu/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00329.x
  49. Hartog, J., Praag, M. V., & Sluis, J. V. D. (2010). If you are so smart, why aren't you an entrepreneur?: Returns to cognitive and social ability. entrepreneurs versus employees. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 19(4), 947-989. doi:10.1111/j.1530-9134.2010.00274.x
  50. Herliana, S., Lawiyah, N., & Aina, Q. (2018). SWOT Analysis approach on SME's entrepreneurial competency. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 24(2), 1L+. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.portal.lib.fit.edu/apps/doc/A565512642/AONE?u=melb26933&sid=AONE&xid=4bc14e74
  51. Hmieleski, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (2009). Entrepreneurs’ optimism and new venture performance: A social cognitive perspective. The Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 473-488. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2009.41330755
  52. Hornaday, J. A., & Aboud, J. (1971). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Personnel Psychology, 24(2), 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1971.tb02469.x
  53. Hull, David L. ; Bosley, John L. & Udell, Gerald G. (1980). Renewing the Hunt for Heffalump: Identifying Potential Entrepreneurs by Personality Characteristics. Journal of Small Business Management 18 (1):11-18.
  54. Karabulut, A. T. (2016). Personality traits on entrepreneurial intention. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 12-21. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.109
  55. Karcsics, E., & Szakacs, F. (2010). Personality factors of entrepreneurial competitiveness. Society and Economy, 32(2), 277-295. doi:10.1556/SocEc.2010.0001
  56. Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W. R., & Xu, T. (2018). Personality traits of entrepreneurs: a review of recent literature. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 279-356.
  57. Kessler, A., Korunka, C., Frank, H., & Lueger, M. (2012). Predicting founding success and new venture survival: A longitudinal nascent entrepreneurship approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 20(01), 25-55.
  58. Khalid, S., & Bhatti, K. (2015). Entrepreneurial competence in managing partnerships and partnership knowledge exchange: Impact on performance differences in export expansion stages. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 598-608. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2015.01.002
  59. Klotz, A. C., & Neubaum, D. O. (2016). Research on the dark side of personality traits in entrepreneurship: Observations from an organizational behavior perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40(1), 7-17. doi:10.1111/etap.12214
  60. Korunka, C., Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Mugler, J. (2003). The Entrepreneurial Personality in the Context of Resources, Environment, and the Startup Process—A Configurational Approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(1), 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-8520.00030
  61. Kyndt, Eva, Herman Baert, Entrepreneurial competencies: Assessment and predictive value for entrepreneurship, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 90, 2015,Pages 13-25, ISSN 0001-8791, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.07.002.
  62. Lanivich, S. E., Lyons, L. M., Wheeler, A. R. (2021). Nascent entrepreneur characteristic predictors of early-stage entrepreneurship outcomes. Journal of small business and enterprise development, 28(7), 1095-1116.
  63. Lawal, F. A., Iyiola, O. O., Adegbuyi, O. A., Ogunnaike, O. O., & Taiwo, A. A. (2018). Modelling the relationship between entrepreneurial climate and venture performance: The moderating role of entrepreneurial competencies. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 24(1), 1-15.
  64. Li, Yong-Hui, Jing-Wen Huang, Ming-Tien Tsai, Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: The role of knowledge creation process, Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 38, Issue 4, 2009, Pages 440-449, ISSN 0019-8501, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2008.02.004.
  65. Ligos, M. (2017). What kind of entrepreneur are you? MidJersey Business, 93(7), 16. Locke, E.A., 2000. The Prime Movers: Traits of Great Wealth Creators. AMACOM, New York.
  66. Luca, M. R., & Robu, A. (2016). Personality traits in entrepreneurs and self-employed. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law, 9(2-Suppl), 91-98.
  67. Man, T. W. Y., Lau, T., & Chan, K. F. (2002). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(2), 123-142. doi:10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00058-6
  68. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The achievement motive. Appleton-Century-Crofts. https://doi.org/10.1037/11144-000
  69. Minello, I. F., Scherer, L. A., & Alves, L. D. C. (2014). Entrepreneurial competencies and business failure. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 18, 1. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.portal.lib.fit.edu/apps/doc/A398074062/AONE?u=melb26933&sid=AONE&xid=d85dc83c
  70. Mitchelmore, S., & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: A literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(2), 92-111. doi:10.1108/13552551011026995
  71. Mitchelmorem, Siwan, Jennifer Rowley, (2013) "Entrepreneurial competencies of women entrepreneurs pursuing business growth", Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 20 Issue: 1, pp.125-142, https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001311298448
  72. Mooradian, Todd & Matzler, Kurt & Uzelac, Borislav & Bauer, Florian. (2016). Perspiration and inspiration: Grit and innovativeness as antecedents of entrepreneurial success. Journal of Economic Psychology. 56. 10.1016/j.joep.2016.08.001.
  73. Murphy, G., Trailer,J. and Hill,R. (1996). Measuring performance in entrepreneurship research. Journal of BusinessResearch 36(1): 15–23
  74. Muzychenko, O. (2008). Cross-cultural entrepreneurial competence in identifying international business opportunities. European Management Journal, 26(6), 366-377. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2008.09.002
  75. Nga J. K. H.,, & Shamuganathan, G. (2010). The influence of personality traits and demographic factors on social entrepreneurship start up intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 259-282. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0358-8
  76. O'Neill, T. A., Lewis, R. J., Law, S. J., Larson, N., Hancock, S., Radan, J., ... & Carswell, J. J. (2017). Forced- choice pre-employment personality assessment: Construct validity and resistance to faking. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 120-127.
  77. Obschonka, M., & Stuetzer, M. (2017). Integrating psychological approaches to entrepreneurship: The entrepreneurial personality system (EPS). Small Business Economics, 49(1), 203-231. doi:10.1007/s11187-016-9821-y
  78. Owens KS, Kirwan JR, Lounsbury JW, Levy JJ, Gibson LW. Personality correlates of self-employed small business owners' success. Work. 2013;45(1):73-85. doi: 10.3233/WOR-121536. PMID: 23241705.
  79. Paolacci, G., & Chandler, J. (2014). Inside the Turk: Understanding Mechanical Turk as a participant pool. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 184-188.
  80. Potosky, D., & Ramakrishna, H. V. (2002). The moderating role of updating climate perceptions in the relationship between goal orientation, self-efficacy, and job performance. Human Performance, 15(3), 275–297. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327043HUP1503_03
  81. Rahman, S. A., Amran, A., Ahmad, N. H., & Taghizadeh, S. K. (2015). Supporting entrepreneurial business success at the base of pyramid through entrepreneurial competencies. Management Decision, 53(6), 1203-1223. doi:10.1108/MD-08-2014-0531
  82. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2000). Psychological approaches to entrepreneurial success. In I. T. Robertson (Ed.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Vol. 15, pp. 101-142). Wiley.
  83. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of work and organizational psychology, 16(4), 353-385.
  84. Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G. and Frese, M. (2009) Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: An Assessment of Past Research and Suggestions for the Future. Entrepreneurship Theory Practice, 33, 761-787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00308.x
  85. Robinson, R. B. Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C., & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(2), 13–31.
  86. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976
  87. Santoro, G., Bertoldi, B., Giachino, C., & Candelo, E. (2020). Exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial resilience and success: The moderating role of stakeholders’ engagement. Journal of Business Research, 119, 142–150. https://doi-org.srv-proxy1.library.tamu.edu/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.052
  88. Schelfhout, Wouter & Bruggeman, Kristien & De Maeyer, Sven. (2016). Evaluation of entrepreneurial competence through scaled behavioural indicators: Validation of an instrument. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 51. 10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.09.001.
  89. Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: Parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence, and interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 498-518. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.10.007 Seibert, Scott & Crant, J. & Kraimer, Maria. (1999). Proactive Personality and Career Success. The Journal of applied psychology. 84. 416-27. 10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.416.
  90. Sigmund, Stefan, Thorsten Semrau & Douglas Wegner (2015) Networking Ability and the Financial Performance of New Ventures: Moderating Effects of Venture Size, Institutional Environment, and Their Interaction, Journal of Small Business Management, 53:1, 266-283, DOI: 10.1111/jsbm.12009
  91. Staniewski, Marcin. (2016). The contribution of business experience and knowledge to successful entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research. 69. 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.095.
  92. Staniewski, M. W., Janowski, K., & Awruk, K. (2016). Entrepreneurial personality dispositions and selected indicators of company functioning. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1939-1943. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.084
  93. Stark, S., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Drasgow, F. (2005). An IRT approach to constructing and scoring pairwise preference items involving stimuli on different dimensions: The multi-unidimensional pairwise-preference model. Applied Psychological Measurement, 29(3), 184-203.
  94. Stewart, W. H., Jr., & Roth, P. L. (2001). Risk propensity differences between entrepreneurs and managers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.145
  95. Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative Self-Efficacy: Its Potential Antecedents and Relationship to Creative Performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137–1148. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069429
  96. Timmons, J.A., Smollen, L.E. and Dingee A.L.M. (1985) New Venture Creation: A Guide to Entrepreneurship. 2nd Edition, Richard D. Irwin Inc., Homewood.
  97. Tsai, KH., Chang, HC. & Peng, CY. Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: a moderated mediation model. Int Entrep Manag J 12, 445–463 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0351-2
  98. Van Ness, R. K., & Seifert, C. F. (2016). A theoretical analysis of the role of characteristics in entrepreneurial propensity. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 10(1), 89-96. doi:10.1002/sej.1205
  99. Wiklund,J. and Shepherd, D.(2005).Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of BusinessVenturing 20(1):71–91.
  100. Yan, J. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurial personality traits on perception of new venture opportunity. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 13(2), 21-35.
  101. Zhao, H., & Seibert, S. E. (2006). The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 259-271. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.259
  102. Zhao, Hao & Seibert, Scott & Lumpkin, G.. (2010). The Relationship of Personality to Entrepreneurial Intentions and Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Management - J MANAGE. 36. 381-404. 10.1177/0149206309335187.

Ongoing Improvements

FI intends to initiate a thorough regression analysis and algorithm review approximately every two years, with the next review scheduled for late 2024.


Start your journey towards being a better entrepreneur